Otitis media susceptibility and shifts in the head and neck microbiome due to variants.

TitleOtitis media susceptibility and shifts in the head and neck microbiome due to variants.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2020
AuthorsFrank, DN, Giese, APJ, Hafrén, L, Bootpetch, TC, Yarza, TKarisse L, Steritz, MJ, Pedro, M, Labra, PJohn, Daly, KA, Tantoco, MLeah C, Szeremeta, W, Reyes-Quintos, MRina T, Ahankoob, N, Llanes, EGonzalo D, Pine, HS, Yousaf, S, Ir, D, Einarsdottir, E, de la Cruz, RAnne R, Lee, NR, Nonato, RMarie A, Robertson, CE, Ong, KMae C, Magno, JPedrito M, Chiong, ANadine E, Espiritu-Chiong, MCarmina, San Agustin, MLuz, Cruz, TLuisa G, Abes, GT, Bamshad, MJ, de la Paz, EMaria Cuti, Kere, J, Nickerson, DA, Mohlke, KL, Riazuddin, S, Chan, A, Mattila, PS, Leal, SM, Ryan, AF, Ahmed, ZM, Chonmaitree, T, Sale, MM, Chiong, CM, Santos-Cortez, RLyn P
JournalJ Med Genet
Date Published2020 Jul 24

BACKGROUND: Otitis media (OM) susceptibility has significant heritability; however, the role of rare variants in OM is mostly unknown. Our goal is to identify novel rare variants that confer OM susceptibility.

METHODS: We performed exome and Sanger sequencing of >1000 DNA samples from 551 multiethnic families with OM and unrelated individuals, RNA-sequencing and microbiome sequencing and analyses of swabs from the outer ear, middle ear, nasopharynx and oral cavity. We also examined protein localisation and gene expression in infected and healthy middle ear tissues.

RESULTS: A large, intermarried pedigree that includes 81 OM-affected and 53 unaffected individuals cosegregates two known rare variants, a common variant and a rare, novel pathogenic variant c.1682A>G (p.Glu561Gly) within (LOD=4.09). Carriage of the missense variant resulted in increased relative abundance of Microbacteriaceae in the middle ear, along with occurrence of Microbacteriaceae in the outer ear and oral cavity but not the nasopharynx. Eight additional novel variants were identified in 12 families and individuals with OM. A role for in OM susceptibility is further supported by lower RNA counts in variant carriers, strong SPINK5 localisation in outer ear skin, faint localisation to middle ear mucosa and eardrum and increased expression in human cholesteatoma.

CONCLUSION: variants confer susceptibility to non-syndromic OM. These variants potentially contribute to middle ear pathology through breakdown of mucosal and epithelial barriers, immunodeficiency such as poor vaccination response, alteration of head and neck microbiota and facilitation of entry of opportunistic pathogens into the middle ear.

Alternate JournalJ. Med. Genet.
PubMed ID32709676
Grant ListR01 DC015004 / DC / NIDCD NIH HHS / United States
UM1 HG006493 / HG / NHGRI NIH HHS / United States